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The Arab mathematician Jābir ibn Aflaḥ (12th century) was also notable for his criticism of the Ptolemaic system.
Astrology was popular in Muslim Spain, and after 788 the Umayyad rulers retained an official astrologer in their courts.
Ibn Mālik of Jaén’s didactic poem Alfiyya (“The Thousand Verses”) constitutes an excellent handbook of grammar; and Abū Ḥayyān of Granada (died 1344), who emigrated to the east, wrote an outstanding commentary on the Quʾrān as well as the first Turkish grammar.
In the field of lexicology, the blind Ibn Sīda of Denia (died 1066) is preeminent, author of a sort of “dictionary of ideas.”s (traditions referring to the Prophet) appeared, but none of these was of particular importance.
of the king Zīrī ʿAbd Allāh, who was deposed by the Almoravids and who sought to justify in those memoirs his deeds as a statesman.
The most important, however, was Ibn Masarrah, whose teachings drew from the 5th-century- (“The Regime of the Solitary”), which was influenced by Neoplatonism and commented on the corrupt nature of society.
Avempace’s later contemporary, Ibn Ṭufayl, court physician and adviser of the Almohad ruler Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsuf, offered a more-developed Neoplatonism in his philosophical novel, (“Alive son of Awake”).
Arab civilization in the peninsula reached its zenith when the political power of the Arabs began to decline.
Immediately following the Muslim conquest in the 8th century, there were no traces of a cultural level higher than that attained by the who lived among the Arab conquerors.